Videos & Animations

The High Luminosity quadrupole magnet

Increasing the number of collisions by a factor of 10 is a future goal for the Large Hadron Collider. To do this, the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) project is working on cranking up LHC performance to increase discovery potential after 2025. Among the components to be upgraded are the quadrupole magnets in interaction points IP1 and IP5, which will use a new superconducting technology based on the superconductor Niobium-tin (Nb3Sn). This superconductor will help reach magnetic fields of about 12 T, but it requires a complex fabrication process that includes heat treatment of the coils to about 650 degrees Celsius and vacuum impregnation with epoxy. In CERN's superconducting model magnets laboratory the Magnet, Superconductors and Cryostats group is currently fabricating short models of the final Nb3Sn HL-LHC quadrupole magnet to verify the magnet design and define fabrication and assembly procedures. (Video: CERN)

The High Luminosity superconductor

The goal of the HL-LHC project is to increase the total number of collisions of the LHC by a factor of 10 . Among the components to be upgraded are the interaction region quadrupole magnets in IP1 and IP5, which will implement a new superconducting technology based on Nb3Sn superconductor. This superconductor will allow reaching magnetic field of about 12 T, but it requires a complex fabrication process which includes heat treatment of the coils to about 650 C and vacuum impregnation with epoxy. In the Superconducting Model Magnets Laboratory (building 927), the Magnet, Superconductors and Cryostats (MSC) group is currently fabricating short models of the final Nb3Sn LHL-LHC quadrupole magnet to verify the magnet design and define fabrication and assembly procedures (Video: CERN)

The crown jewel of the HL-LHC magnets

7.15-metre-long coils already started in in the Large Magnet Facility building (Video: CERN)

Suppression of a beam instability by bringing the beams into collision more quickly

beam,beam instability,beam-beam,WP2,HiLumi,HL-LHC
If the two counter-rotating beams are separated by a transverse offset between one and two rms beam sizes for too long a time, an impedance-induced beam instability can develop due to a loss of transverse Landau damping. (Image: CERN)

Mode-coupling instability of colliding beams suppressed by the hourglass effect

e-coupling instability,hourglas effect,colliding beams,WP2,HiLumi,Accelerators
The strong focalization of the beam at the interaction points leads to a deformation of the beam profile due to the hourglass effect, which suppresses the mode-coupling instability between beam-beam and impedance through Landau damping => Please note that the hourglass effect (seen on the right picture) has been amplified to see it more clearly BUT the stabilising effect was observed with the correct HL-LHC parameters. (Image: CERN)

Beam-beam interaction

The Beam 1 (represented in blue) and the Beam 2 (represented in red) are colliding with an angle at the Interaction Point (IP). The angle is needed to avoid unwanted multiple collisions along the interaction region. Despite of the separation introduced by the angle, the two beams interact via their electromagnetic field, the so called "beam-beam" interaction. (Video: CERN)

Transverse mode-coupling instability if the imdependance is too large

If the impedance of the machine is not kept under control, a transverse mode-coupling instability can develop inside the proton bunches, leading to transverse emittance growth and beam loss. (Video: CERN)